To start, there are biotic and abiotic factors in the surrounding ecosystems. Biotic factors have biological origins in the ecosystem and arise from activity by living creatures. Abiotic factors are the no living components of the ecosystem, such as the climate. All ecosystems on earth together create the biosphere. The biggest influence on the ecosystems on our planet is human activity.
In the oceans, there are three life zones: the intertidal, the pelagic, and the benthic zone. The photic zone is where photosynthesis can occur. Coral are formed by creatures called cnidarians and are extremely sensitive to pollution.
The study of inland water ecosystems is limnology. When nutrients build up in this water, algae grows and clouds the water, causing decomposition.
Wetlands benefit the environment by filtering water, protection from floods, removing toxins, decomposition, and other environmental work.
Photosynthesis is a process in which energy is converted to carbohydrate molecules. Autotrophs are organisms that produce these molecules. Unlike autotrophs, chemoautotrophs do not require sunlight to synthesize biomolecules. Herbivores are organisms that feed on organic materials synthesized by other organisms(plant eaters!). Detritivores are creatures that feed on dead plant and animal material. Scavengers are creatures that feed on whatever the other creatures leave behind. All energy eventually makes it completely through the cycle.